Fluid Dynamics and Engineering Glossary 


Keywords of Fluid Dynamics with
links to Wikipedia
Aerodynamics  study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created. Absolute pressure  pressure relative to the pressure in a vacuum, equal to the sum of the pressure shown on a pressure gauge and atmospheric pressure. Bernoulli Effect  pressure of a fluid decreases as the fluid flows faster Bernoulli's Principle  states that for an ideal fluid , with no work being performed on the fluid, an increase in velocity occurs simultaneously with decrease in pressure or a change in the fluid's gravitational potential energy. Compressible  fluid flow is compressible if changes in pressure will result in appreciable changes in density. Eddy  is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid flows past an obstacle Explicit calculation  dependent variables can be directly computed from known quantities Fluid dynamics is the subdiscipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion Hydrodynamics is a branch of theoretical fluid dynamics which deals with flow of an ideal fluid. Ideal fluid is fluid that is both incompressible and inviscid. Implicit method  dependent variables are defined by coupled sets of equations, and either a matrix or iterative methods are needed to obtain the solution Laminar  laminar flow means the fluid is moving in smooth layers. Lift  upward reaction of an aircraft to the flow of air air forced over the shape of the wing (airfoil) Multiphase a fluid with several different immiscible fluids (oil, water or gas). Turbulence  turbulent airflow is when the fluid streamlines break into eddies and complex changing patterns. Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to being deformed by stress (shear or extensional). VOF  the VOF method locates the free surface, track the surface as an interface moving through a computational grid, and applies boundary conditions at the surface. Vortex  fluid rotating around its own center Dimensionless Number in Fluid DynamicsArchimedes #, Ar motion of fluids due to density differencesBagnold # flow of granular matter, sand, etc. Biot #, Bi surface vs. volume conductivity of solids Bodenstein number residencetime distribution Bond number capillary action driven by buoyancy Brinkman number heat transfer by conduction from the wall to a viscous fluid Brownell Katz number combination of capillary number and Bond number Capillary number fluid flow influenced by surface tension Colburn j factor dimensionless heat transfer coefficient CourantFriedrichLevy number nonhydrostatic dynamics Damköhler #, Da reaction time scales vs. transport phenomena Darcy friction factor fluid flow Dean number vortices in curved ducts Deborah number rheology of viscoelastic fluids Drag coefficient flow resistance Eckert number convective heat transfer Euler number hydrodynamics (pressure forces vs. inertia forces) Fanning friction factor fluid flow in pipes Fourier number heat transfer Froude #, Fr wave and surface behaviour Galilei number gravitydriven viscous flow Graetz number heat flow Grashof #, Gr free convection Hatta number adsorption enhancement due to chemical reaction Hagen number forced convection Karlovitz number turbulent combustion Knudsen number continuum approximation in fluids Laplace number free convection within immiscible fluids Lewis number ratio of mass diffusivity and thermal diffusivity Lift coefficient lift available from an airfoil at a given angle of attack Mach number gas dynamics Marangoni number Marangoni flow due to thermal surface tension deviations Morton number determination of bubble/drop shape Nusselt #, Nu heat transfer with forced convection Ohnesorge number atomization of liquids, Marangoni flow Peclet number advection–diffusion problems Prandtl number forced and free convection Rayleigh number buoyancy and viscous forces in free convection Reynolds #, Re Re is ratio of inertial forces (v*ρ) to viscous forces (μ/L) and consequently it quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions. Richardson #, Ri effect of buoyancy on flow stability Schmidt #, Sc fluid dynamics (mass transfer and diffusion) Sherwood #, Sh mass transfer with forced convection Sommerfeld number boundary lubrication Stanton number heat transfer in forced convection Stefan number heat transfer during phase change Stokes number particle dynamics Strouhal number continuous and pulsating flow Taylor number rotating fluid flows Weber number multiphase flow with strongly curved surfaces Weissenberg number viscoelastic flows Womersley number continuous and pulsating flows CAD ComputerAided Design CAE ComputerAided Engineering CAM ComputerAided Manufacturing CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics DES Detached Eddy Simulation DNS Direct Numerical Simulation FEM Finite Element Method FVM Finite Volume Method FSI FluidStructure Interaction GUI Graphical User Interface IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification LES Large Eddy Simulation PDF Probability Density Function RANS Reynolds Averaged NavierStokes RNG ReNormalization Group (kepsilon Turbulence Model) RSM Reynolds Stress Model UDF UserDefined Function VOF Volume of Fluid/Flow Model ESP electrostatic precipitator, FF fabric filter, CFBA circulating fluidizedbed absorber, SCR selective catalytic reduction SDA spray dry adsorber SI sorbent injection PM particulate matter APCD Air pollution control device MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology B Baseline BPM Measurement made at the alkali bypass stack of a short kiln. CA Test condition average only available. CI Carbon injection was used during the test condition. CMBM Combined main and bypass stack gas measurement for short cement kilns. Comm Commercial incinerator. EFS Emissions measurement exceeds the federal standard. ICM Incomplete PCDD/PCDF congeners and/or isomers were measured. ILRM Cement kiln has an operating inline raw mill MB Mass balance problem. MHRA For CO and HC, maximum hourly rolling average. ND/T The % of the total feed rate that is measured at the detection limit. NHWBCK Non hazardous waste burning cement kiln NLBHW Source is no longer burning hazardous waste. Nor “Normal” condition NW Source was burning normal waste (i.e., no spiking was conducted). NS Source was not spiking constituents. NSPS Source is subject to the cement kiln New Source Performance Standard. OS Onsite captive incinerator. RA For CO and HC, the run average. RT Testing was for research type evaluation purposes. S/HW The percentage of the HW MTEC that is apparently associated with spiking. WHB System has waste heat boiler used for flue gas cooling. A/C Airtocloth ratio; used for describing fabric filter design; defined as the fabric cloth area divided by the flue gas flow rate through the fabric filter ACI Activated carbon injection; activated carbon is used for both mercury and organics (including PCDD/PCDF) control APCD Air pollution control device APCS Air pollution control system ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials BIF Boilers and Industrial Furnaces BTF Beyond the floor CAA Clean Air Act Amendments CEMS Continuous emissions monitoring system; flue gas emissions monitoring systems that can provide continuous realtime analysis online; for monitoring HAPs such as PM, Hg, CO, HC, etc. CETRED Combustion Emissions Technical Resource Document CK Cement kiln CKD Cement kiln dust CMS Continuous monitoring system CO Carbon monoxide CPT Comprehensive performance test DL Detection limit DOE Department of Energy D/O/M Design, operating, and maintenance procedures DRE Destruction and removal efficiency dscf Dry standard cubic feet dscm Dry standard cubic meter EER Energy and Environmental Research Corporation EPA Environmental Protection Agency ESP Electrostatic precipitator FF Fabric filter (baghouse) FID Flame ionization detector GCP Good combustion practices GOP Good operating practices g Gram gr Grain (7000 grains per pound) HAP Hazardous air pollutant HC Hydrocarbons HCl Hydrogen chloride Hg Mercury HW Hazardous waste HWC Hazardous waste combustor HWI Hazardous waste incinerator ITEF International Toxicity Equivalency Factor System (for PCDD/PCDF TEQ determination) IWS Ionizing wet scrubber LVM Low volatile metals LWAK Lightweight aggregate kiln MACT Maximum achievable control technology MB Mass balance MHRA Maximum hourly rolling average MTEC Maximum theoretical emissions concentration MWC Municipal waste combustor MWI Medical waste incinerator NODA Notice of Data Availability NSPS New Source Performance Standard OS Onsite captive incinerator PCB Polychlorinated biphenyls PCDD/PCDF Polychlorinated dibenzopdioxins and dibenzofurans PIC Products of incomplete combustion PM Particulate matter POHC Principal organic hazardous constituent ppmv Parts per million by volume in gas PQL Practial Quantitation Limit RA Run average RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act SCA Specific collection area; for ESPs, determined as the ratio of flue gas flow rate to ESP plate area SRE System removal efficiency; detemined as one minus the ratio of the stack gas emissions to total input feedrate of a HAP SVM Semivolatile metals TEQ Toxic equivalent; for PCDD/PCDF, a measure of the normalized toxicity of the individual congener/isomers VS Venturi scrubber WHB Waste heat boiler Glossary Links http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/MainIndex.cfm? http://www.efunda.com/formulae/fluids/glossary.cfm http://nsidc.org/arcticmet/glossary/steering_flow.html http://www.proquipinc.com/glossary.asp http://www.resourcepersonnel.com/glossary_a.asp Oil and Gas Glossary http://antoine.frostburg.edu/chem/senese/101/liquids/glossary.shtml http://www.hydraulicspneumatics.com/200/FPE/ReferenceMateri/Article/True/6465/ReferenceMateri http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/wind/valid/tutorial/glossary.html 