Fluid Dynamics and Engineering Glossary
Keywords of Fluid Dynamics with
links to Wikipedia
Aerodynamics - study of the motion of gas on objects and the forces created.
Absolute pressure - pressure relative to the pressure in a vacuum, equal to the sum of the pressure shown on a pressure gauge and atmospheric pressure.
Bernoulli Effect - pressure of a fluid decreases as the fluid flows faster
Bernoulli's Principle - states that for an ideal fluid , with no work being performed on the fluid, an increase in velocity occurs simultaneously with decrease in pressure or a change in the fluid's gravitational potential energy.
Compressible - fluid flow is compressible if changes in pressure will result in appreciable changes in density.
Eddy - is the swirling of a fluid and the reverse current created when the fluid flows past an obstacle
Explicit calculation - dependent variables can be directly computed from known quantities
Fluid dynamics is the sub-discipline of fluid mechanics dealing with fluids (liquids and gases) in motion
Hydrodynamics is a branch of theoretical fluid dynamics which deals with flow of an ideal fluid.
Ideal fluid is fluid that is both incompressible and inviscid.
Implicit method - dependent variables are defined by coupled sets of equations, and either a matrix or iterative methods are needed to obtain the solution
Laminar - laminar flow means the fluid is moving in smooth layers.
Lift - upward reaction of an aircraft to the flow of air air forced over the shape of the wing (airfoil)
Multiphase a fluid with several different immiscible fluids (oil, water or gas).
Turbulence - turbulent airflow is when the fluid streamlines break into eddies and complex changing patterns.
Viscosity is a measure of the resistance of a fluid to being deformed by stress (shear or extensional).
VOF - the VOF method locates the free surface, track the surface as an interface moving through a computational grid, and applies boundary conditions at the surface.
Vortex - fluid rotating around its own center
Dimensionless Number in Fluid DynamicsArchimedes #, Ar motion of fluids due to density differences
Bagnold # flow of granular matter, sand, etc.
Biot #, Bi surface vs. volume conductivity of solids
Bodenstein number residence-time distribution
Bond number capillary action driven by buoyancy
Brinkman number heat transfer by conduction from the wall to a viscous fluid
Brownell Katz number combination of capillary number and Bond number
Capillary number fluid flow influenced by surface tension
Colburn j factor dimensionless heat transfer coefficient
Courant-Friedrich-Levy number non-hydrostatic dynamics
Damköhler #, Da reaction time scales vs. transport phenomena
Darcy friction factor fluid flow
Dean number vortices in curved ducts
Deborah number rheology of viscoelastic fluids
Drag coefficient flow resistance
Eckert number convective heat transfer
Euler number hydrodynamics (pressure forces vs. inertia forces)
Fanning friction factor fluid flow in pipes
Fourier number heat transfer
Froude #, Fr wave and surface behaviour
Galilei number gravity-driven viscous flow
Graetz number heat flow
Grashof #, Gr free convection
Hatta number adsorption enhancement due to chemical reaction
Hagen number forced convection
Karlovitz number turbulent combustion
Knudsen number continuum approximation in fluids
Laplace number free convection within immiscible fluids
Lewis number ratio of mass diffusivity and thermal diffusivity
Lift coefficient lift available from an airfoil at a given angle of attack
Mach number gas dynamics
Marangoni number Marangoni flow due to thermal surface tension deviations
Morton number determination of bubble/drop shape
Nusselt #, Nu heat transfer with forced convection
Ohnesorge number atomization of liquids, Marangoni flow
Peclet number advection–diffusion problems
Prandtl number forced and free convection
Rayleigh number buoyancy and viscous forces in free convection
Reynolds #, Re Re is ratio of inertial forces (v*ρ) to viscous forces (μ/L) and consequently it quantifies the relative importance of these two types of forces for given flow conditions.
Richardson #, Ri effect of buoyancy on flow stability
Schmidt #, Sc fluid dynamics (mass transfer and diffusion)
Sherwood #, Sh mass transfer with forced convection
Sommerfeld number boundary lubrication
Stanton number heat transfer in forced convection
Stefan number heat transfer during phase change
Stokes number particle dynamics
Strouhal number continuous and pulsating flow
Taylor number rotating fluid flows
Weber number multiphase flow with strongly curved surfaces
Weissenberg number viscoelastic flows
Womersley number continuous and pulsating flows
CAD Computer-Aided Design
CAE Computer-Aided Engineering
CAM Computer-Aided Manufacturing
CFD Computational Fluid Dynamics
DES Detached Eddy Simulation
DNS Direct Numerical Simulation
FEM Finite Element Method
FVM Finite Volume Method
FSI Fluid-Structure Interaction
GUI Graphical User Interface
IGES Initial Graphics Exchange Specification
LES Large Eddy Simulation
PDF Probability Density Function
RANS Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes
RNG ReNormalization Group (k-epsilon Turbulence Model)
RSM Reynolds Stress Model
UDF User-Defined Function
VOF Volume of Fluid/Flow Model
ESP electrostatic precipitator,
FF fabric filter,
CFBA circulating fluidized-bed absorber,
SCR selective catalytic reduction
SDA spray dry adsorber
SI sorbent injection
PM particulate matter
APCD Air pollution control device
MACT Maximum Achievable Control Technology
BPM Measurement made at the alkali bypass stack of a short kiln.
CA Test condition average only available.
CI Carbon injection was used during the test condition.
CMBM Combined main and bypass stack gas measurement for short cement kilns.
Comm Commercial incinerator.
EFS Emissions measurement exceeds the federal standard.
ICM Incomplete PCDD/PCDF congeners and/or isomers were measured.
ILRM Cement kiln has an operating in-line raw mill
MB Mass balance problem.
MHRA For CO and HC, maximum hourly rolling average.
ND/T The % of the total feed rate that is measured at the detection limit.
NHWBCK Non hazardous waste burning cement kiln
NLBHW Source is no longer burning hazardous waste.
Nor “Normal” condition
NW Source was burning normal waste (i.e., no spiking was conducted).
NS Source was not spiking constituents.
NSPS Source is subject to the cement kiln New Source Performance Standard.
OS On-site captive incinerator.
RA For CO and HC, the run average.
RT Testing was for research type evaluation purposes.
S/HW The percentage of the HW MTEC that is apparently associated with spiking.
WHB System has waste heat boiler used for flue gas cooling.
A/C Air-to-cloth ratio; used for describing fabric filter design; defined as the fabric cloth area divided by the flue gas flow rate through the fabric filter
ACI Activated carbon injection; activated carbon is used for both mercury and organics (including PCDD/PCDF) control
APCD Air pollution control device
APCS Air pollution control system
ASTM American Society of Testing and Materials
BIF Boilers and Industrial Furnaces
BTF Beyond the floor
CAA Clean Air Act Amendments
CEMS Continuous emissions monitoring system; flue gas emissions monitoring systems that can provide continuous real-time analysis on-line; for monitoring HAPs such as
PM, Hg, CO, HC, etc.
CETRED Combustion Emissions Technical Resource Document
CK Cement kiln
CKD Cement kiln dust
CMS Continuous monitoring system
CO Carbon monoxide
CPT Comprehensive performance test
DL Detection limit
DOE Department of Energy
D/O/M Design, operating, and maintenance procedures
DRE Destruction and removal efficiency
dscf Dry standard cubic feet
dscm Dry standard cubic meter
EER Energy and Environmental Research Corporation
EPA Environmental Protection Agency
ESP Electrostatic precipitator
FF Fabric filter (baghouse)
FID Flame ionization detector
GCP Good combustion practices
GOP Good operating practices
gr Grain (7000 grains per pound)
HAP Hazardous air pollutant
HCl Hydrogen chloride
HW Hazardous waste
HWC Hazardous waste combustor
HWI Hazardous waste incinerator
ITEF International Toxicity Equivalency Factor System (for PCDD/PCDF TEQ determination)
IWS Ionizing wet scrubber
LVM Low volatile metals
LWAK Lightweight aggregate kiln
MACT Maximum achievable control technology
MB Mass balance
MHRA Maximum hourly rolling average
MTEC Maximum theoretical emissions concentration
MWC Municipal waste combustor
MWI Medical waste incinerator
NODA Notice of Data Availability
NSPS New Source Performance Standard
OS On-site captive incinerator
PCB Polychlorinated biphenyls
PCDD/PCDF Polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans
PIC Products of incomplete combustion
PM Particulate matter
POHC Principal organic hazardous constituent
ppmv Parts per million by volume in gas
PQL Practial Quantitation Limit
RA Run average
RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
SCA Specific collection area; for ESPs, determined as the ratio of flue gas flow rate to ESP plate area
SRE System removal efficiency; detemined as one minus the ratio of the stack gas emissions to total input feedrate of a HAP
SVM Semivolatile metals
TEQ Toxic equivalent; for PCDD/PCDF, a measure of the normalized toxicity of the individual congener/isomers
VS Venturi scrubber
WHB Waste heat boiler
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